Acids vs bases vs salts: Bases are substances which dissociate into hydroxide ion when dissolved in water and are the chemical compound which reacts with acids to form salt and water only. The pH value of the bases is more than 7. Salt is the compound formed from an acid by the replacement of hydrogen ion in the acid by a metal. The substance whose pH value is less than 7 are termed as acid also an acid is a chemical compound forming hydrogen ion when ionized in water. The PH value of a salt substance is neutral.
What are the differences between Acid, Base, and Salts?
1. Type of ion they produced in a water solution:
Arrhenius is a great scientist who conducted the study about acid and base substance. His discovery gave a vital contribution to the world of chemistry, especially in the branches of organic chemistry. Based on his theory, he is able to explain the difference between acid, base, and salt. He said that acid will produce the H+ ion in the water solution. The level of H+ ion released by the acid will be greater than the pure water. While base will produce ion of OH- in the water.
2. ph level:
PH level is another that we can find as the difference between acid, base, and salt. PH level describes the level of positive hydrogen ions and negative hydroxide ions in the solution. Scientist uses the ph to measure the level of acidity and alkalinity in the solution. Acid has the lower ph, while bases have a higher ph. The value of acid ph is less than 7, while the base ph values are greater than 7. Salt is the product of acid and base reaction. In this reaction, both acid and base neutralize each other so that the product of the reaction will contain neutral substance like salt.
3. Litmus paper and phenolphthalein:
We can also see the difference between acid, base, and salt by conducting the chemical experiment. The base substance will change the red colored litmus paper to the blue colored litmus paper while acid substances will change a blue colored litmus paper to a red colored litmus paper. We can also use the phenolphthalein to check the type of substance. It’s the chemical which is used as the ph indicator. The acid will remain colorless with the addition of this compound. While the base solution will turn into pink colored solution after this phenolphthalein addition. Salts has no effect on neither the litmus paper nor the phenolphthalein as it is a neutral substance.
4. Chemical formula:
Different substances must have a different kind of properties and formula. The acid usually has the H formula at the beginning of its chemical formula. Examples include HCl, H2SO4, HNO3. This has an exception which is vinegar or CH3COOH. Bases have the OH formula on the end of its chemical formula. Examples: NaOH.
5. Bronstead-Lowry Theory:
Bronstead-Lowry is another great chemist who successfully discovered the theory about acid and base. Using the previous theory about Arrhenius, they made the theory with the base of proton activities. He concluded that acid will produce a proton, while the base will accept the proton. The acid is a proton donor while the base is a proton acceptor.
Acids have a sour taste of lemons, oranges and other citrus fruits, while acetic acid gives vinegar its sour taste. Bases taste bitter and salt may be of the five tastes, including salty, sweet, bitter, sour or savory.
Acids react with metals to produce a compound and hydrogen gas while bases do not react with metals. Acids react with bases to produce salt and water. Salts do not undergo any chemical reaction.
The nature of the acids bases and is another thing that can be used to differentiate the three. Acids are corrosive in nature as you will get a stinging feeling when placed on a wound whereas bases are soapy in nature hence slippery to touch. Also, bases are corrosive and should not be touched with bare hands. Salts do not have the corrosive nature.
9. Dissociation in water:
Acids free hydrogen ions(H+) when mixed with water while bases free hydroxide ions(OH-) when mixed with water. Acid cannot be termed to be acid when dry, it is until it is aqueous. Salt ionize in water and produce neither hydrogen nor hydroxide ion.
10. The conductivity of electricity:
Acids and bases are good conductors of electricity as they have mobile ions which help them to conduct electricity. Salt substances contain have no mobile ions and therefore they cannot conduct electricity. Bases conduct electricity only when in an aqueous state.