Although there are a couple of similarities between the two forces which include: both are central forces, they all follow Newton’s third law which postulates make action-reaction pair and lastly that they are both conservative, there are various differences as well. Now, we are going to state the main differences between the two forces.
So What is the Differences between Gravitational force and Electric force?
1. The definition-the main difference between the two forces lies somewhere in their definitions.
Gravitational force is the force by which earth attracts other objects by mass while electrical force is the force that an object has in regard to the charge. This means that the two forces are conservative forces and they also belong to the four fundamental forces of nature.
2. The strength of the forces
Another major difference between the two fundamental forces is a strength. The gravitational attraction between two electrons is only 8.22*10-37 of the electro statistic force of repulsion. This is measured along with the same separation. Though gravitational force is highly concerned with the large masses, any large collection of charges will quickly neutralize.
Another major difference is that gravitation only attracts while the electronic force will attract when the electrical charge is opposite. The electric force will repel if the electric charges are similar. What this means is that the gravitational force is considered as a Monopole force while the electro statistics force is considered as a dipole force. You can try this by getting two magnets. They will repel when they are projected from North-North Poles and will attract when projected to North-south poles. Though, there’s under one circumstance that this may change. The concept of dark energy may give the gravitational force a chance to attract and repel because it is assumed to have anti-gravitational force.
4. Another big difference is that the gravitational force is independent of the medium between the masses.
On the other hand, the electric force is highly dependent on the material between the charges. This makes the difference because gravitational force is the force that exists between two masses in reference to the earth. It can be between the earth and the moon, an apple and the earth or many other things against the earth.
5. Presence–The two forces are not present the same way.
As a matter of fact, the gravitational force is always in any system containing masses. On the other hand, the electric force may be present or absent. This depends on many factors.
6. Constant–The two types of forces have different constants.
Although this is not a major difference, it makes the difference in the sense that they are not marked the same in science. Gravitational force is marked as ”G” while the Electric force is marked as ”K”. This means that the Constant for gravitational force is ”G” while that of Electric force is ”K”.
The two forces don’t originate from the same standpoint. The gravitational force originates from the mass while The electric force originates from the charge. Gravitational force depends heavily on the mass of the object. This means that the larger the object, the more gravitational force. On the other hand, the electric force depends heavily on the charge. This means that the more they charge the more strength.
8. Formula-The formulas are also different.
This comes in when the two forces are compared in a class. The formula for the gravitational force is F= (G*M1*M2)/R^2.
F-is the Gravitational force
G-is the universal constant for gravitational force
M1 and M2 are the two masses for two bodies M1 and M2. The two masses are separated by distance. Gravitational force (F) is proportional to the product of the masses of two bodies. It is also inversely proportional to the square of the distance.
The equation for electric force is very different. In this regard, it is known as the Coulomb’s force which is indicated as:
Where Q1 stands for the quality of the charge on object 1 and q2 represents the same in object 2. D represents the distance of separation between the two objects while k is the proportionality constant for electric force.
9. Electrostatic arises from the influence of the electric field on a charge which is mediated by photons.
On the other hand, the gravitational force arises due to the curvature of space by the presence of mass.
10. Magnitude- The magnitude of gravitational force is very small especially if its compared hand in hand with the magnitude of electric force.
This manages to be a huge difference that is highly testable. The distance and the mass of the object which is not the case with electric force influence gravitational force.